(Subject Code-95)

Unit 1: Crop Ecology and Geography
Principles of crop ecology; Ecosystem concept and determinants of productivity of
ecosystem; Physiological limits of crop yield and variability in relation to ecological optima;
Crop adaptation; Climate shift and its ecological implication; Greenhouse effect; Agro-
ecological and agro climatic regions of lndia; Geographical distribution of cereals, legumes,
oilseeds, vegetables, fodders and forages, commercial crops, condiments and spices,
medicinal and aromatic plants; Adverse climatic factors and crop productivity;
Photosynthesis, respiration, net assimilation, solar energy conversion efficiency and relative
water content, light intensity, water and CO2 in relation to photosynthetic rates and efficiency;
Physiological stress in crops; Remote sensing: Spectral indices and their application in
agriculture, crop water stress indices and crop stress detection. Agro-biology, precision
Unit 2: Weed Management
Scope and principles of weed management; Weeds’ classification, biology, ecology and
allelopathy; Crop weed competition, weed threshold; Herbicides classification, formulations,
mode of action, selectivity and resistance; Persistence of herbicides in soils and plants;
Application methods and equipment; Biological weed control, bioherbicides: Integrated weed
management; Special weeds, parasitic and aquatic weeds and their management in cropped
and non cropped lands; weed control schedules in field crops, vegetables and plantation
crops; Role of GM crops in weed management.
Unit 3: Soil Fertility and Fertilizer Use
History of soil fertility and fertilizer use; Concept of essentiality of plant nutrients, their
critical concentrations in plants, nutrient interactions, diagnostic techniques with special
emphasis on emerging deficiencies of secondary and micro-nutrients; Soil fertility and
productivity and their indicators; Fertilizer materials including liquid fertilizers, their
composition, mineralization, availability and reaction products in soils; Water solubility of
phosphate fertilizers; Slow release fertilizers, nitrification inhibitors and their use for crop
production; Principles and methods of fertilizer application; Integrated nutrient management
and bio-fertilizers; Agronomic and physiological efficiency and recovery of applied plant
nutrients; Criteria for determining fertilizer schedules for cropping systems direct, residual
and cumulative effects; Fertilizer related environmental problems including ground water
pollution; Site-specific nutrient management; Contamination of heavy metals in peri-urban
soils and their remediation.
Unit 4: Dryland Agronomy
Concept of dryland farming; dryland farming vs rainfed farming; History, development,
significance and constraints of dryland agriculture in India; Climatic classification and
delineation of dryland tracts; Characterization of agro-climatic environments of drylands;
Rainfall analysis and length of growing season; Types of drought, drought syndrome, effect
on plant growth, drought resistance, drought avoidance, drought management; Crop Planning
including contingency, crop diversification, varieties, cropping systems, conservation
cropping and mid-season corrections for aberrant weather conditions; Techniques of moisture
conservation in-situ to reduce evapotranspiration, runoff and to increase infiltration; Rain
water harvesting and recycling concept, techniques and practices; Timelines and precision key
factors for timely sowing, precision in seeding, weed control; Fertilizer placement, top
dressing and foliar application, aqua-fertigation; Concept and importance of watershed
management in dryland areas.
Unit 5: Management of problematic soils and water problem soils
Problem soils and their distribution in India, acid, saline, waterlogged and mined-soils;
Response of crop to acidity, salinity, sodicity, excess water and nutrient imbalances;
Reclamation of problem soils, role of amendments and drainage; Crop production techniques
in problem soils - crops, varieties, cropping system and agronomic practices; Effects of water
table fluctuation on crop growth; Degraded lands and their rehabilitation. Water quality
criteria and use of brackish waters in agriculture; Hydrological imbalances and their
corrective measures; Concept of critical water table depths for crop growth; Crop production
and alternate use of problematic soils and poor quality water for agricultural and fish
production; Amelioration of salt affected soils.
U.P. Higher Education Services Commission, Allahabad/raj/Syllabus/Agronomy
Unit 6: Crop Production
Crop production techniques for cereals, millets, legumes, oilseeds, fiber crops, sugarcane,
tobacco, fodder and pasture crops including origin, history, distribution, adaptation, climate,
soil, season, modern varieties, fertilizer requirements, intercultural operations, water
requirement. weed control, quality components, industrial use, economics and post harvest
Unit 7: Agricultural Statistics
Frequency distribution, standard error and deviation, correlation and regression analyses, co-
efficient of variation; Tests of significance-t, F and chi-square (X2); Data transformation and
missing plot techniques; Design of experiments and their basic principles, completely
randomized, randomized block, split plot, strip-plot, factorial and simple confounding
designs; Efficiency of designs; Methods of statistical analysis for cropping systems including
intercropping; Pooled analysis.
Unit 8: Sustainable Land Use Systems
Concept of sustainability; Sustainability parameters and indicators; Plant geometry
Conservation agriculture; Alternate land use systems; Types, extent and causes of wasteland;
Shifting cultivation; Agro forestry systems; Agricultural and agro-industrial residues and its
recycling, safe disposal; Allelopathy and biomass production.
Unit 9: Basics of Soil and Water
Soil and water as vital resources for agricultural production; Occurrence of groundwater,
groundwater aquifers, exploration of groundwater; Soil-plant water relationship; Fate of rain
water received at the soil surface, runoff and infiltration reciprocity, factors affecting
infiltration, means to enhance infilterability of soil, mechanical and biological means to
reduce runoff and soil loss; Water harvesting for crop life saving irrigations; watershed
management; Soil and water conservation; Analysis of hydrologic data and their use.
Unit 10:Soil Water Relationship
Soil water relations, water retention by soil, soil moisture characteristics, field capacity,
permanent wilting point, plant available water and extractable water; Soil irrigability,
classifications, factors affecting profile water storage; Determination of soil water content,
computation of soil water depletion, soil water potential and its components, hydraulic head;
Movement of soil water saturated and unsaturated water flow; Field water budget, water gains
and water losses from soil, deep percolation beyond root zone, capillary rise;
Evapotranspiration (ET), scope for economizing water, measures for reducing direct
evaporation from soil and crop canopies; Soil physical properties in relation to plant growth
and development; Erodability of soils and their prevention.
Unit11:Plant Water Relationship
Plant water relations: Concept of plant water potential, cell water relations, plant water
potential and its components; Significance of osmotic adjustment, leaf diffusive resistance,
Water movement through soil - plant atmosphere systems, uptake and transport of water by
roots; Development of crop water deficit, crop adaptation to water deficit, morpho
physiological effect of water deficit; Drought tolerance, mechanisms of drought tolerance,
potential drought tolerance traits and their measurements. Management and breeding
strategies to improve crop productivity under different patterns of drought situations of
limited water supplies; Effect of excess water on plant growth and production; Types of
droughts, drought indices.
Unit12:Irrigation Water Management
Management of irrigation water; History of irrigation in India; Major irrigation projects in
India; Water resources development; Crop water requirements; Concepts of irrigation
scheduling, Different approaches of irrigation scheduling; Soil water depletion plant indices
and climatic parameters; Concept of critical stages of crop growth in relation to water
supplies; Crop modeling, crop coefficients, Methods of irrigation viz. surface methods, sub
surface methods, drip irrigation and sprinkler irrigation, merits and demerits of various
methods, design and evaluation of irrigation methods; Measurement of irrigation water,
application and distribution efficiencies; Management of water resources (rain, canal and
ground water) for agricultural production; Agronomic considerations in tile-design and
operation of irrigation projects, Irrigation legislation; Water quality, conjunctive use of water,
irrigation strategies under different situation of water availability, optimum crop plans and
cropping patterns in canal command areas; Irrigation water distribution, Irrig

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